The skeleton of Turin, shrouded in mystery, continues to enchant tourists


(CNN) – When she was 24, Emanuela Marinelli was walking near the Vatican in Rome when she caught a glimpse of a "beautiful face of Christ" printed on a souvenir in the window of a shop run by nuns.

The image, he said, stands out among other items for sale – a series of ashtray kits with the Pope's face and Jesus' plastic representations on the cross, with their eyes open and closed.

"He was black and white with his eyes closed, suffering but calm," he said.

He transformed, entered the store and asked a nun who had painted the original version, just to say that there was no artist, it was a photograph of the shaded Torino.

"I was surprised and unhappy," says Marinelli. "It simply came to our notice then [this photo was of] the funeral leaf of Christ with his image printed … looks ridiculous. I left the store skeptical and didn't think about it anymore. "

That was in 1975.

Today, Marinelli is one of the most prominent "chignons" in the world – people who believe that the linen cloth 14 & # 39; 5 "x 3 & # 39; 7", which bears an image of what the body appears to be of a man, is actually the burial cloth of Jesus of Nazareth.

She is not alone. Many believers continue to respect Swarovski despite much scientific effort to question its origins.

In its own way, it has become one of the most unusual tourist attractions in the world, continuing to attract visitors despite the fact that few can now see it.

The image was unveiled after centuries of worship

At first glance, the rusty image of the man in the most famous strip in the world is faint and almost cartoonish.

It was this strange spectacle that attracted pilgrims from the 14th century, when the "Jesus burial cloth" first came to France. He moved to Turin, Italy in 1578 and has been attracting visitors to the northern Italian city ever since.

Shroud's global phenomenon actually began in 1898 when amateur photographer Secondo Pia became the first person to photograph it. As the images unfolded, Pia realized that the photographic sign showed what was a perfectly negative image of a bloodthirsty and bruised figure – an image she could not see with the naked eye.

Even before Pia's discovery, Singani was controversial. In 1390, Pierre d & # 39; Arcis, Bishop of Troy, wrote to the Pope, declaring him a fake, designed to attract fragile tourists. Believers and skeptics have been reversed since its inception – as crowds continue to line up in Turin.

With the discovery of the negative image, the shares became even higher. Proponents of the scandal continue to insist that the man in the picture – a swollen face and bruises, hands and feet pierced with nails and flogged by Roman whips – is Jesus Christ.

Skeptics, however, say it is a clever medieval lie.

Both sides claim to have evidence to support this and reject the research showing the opposite view.

Science was supposed to have its last word in 1988, when radiocarbon dating showed that the fabric of the cover came from 1260-1390AD.

That must end.

But not only is the search for the shroud continuing. Christians and non-Christians alike gather at the Torino Cathedral to see the handicraft.
This most sacred destination is one of the top attractions for visitors to Turin, along with the city's Cinema Museum, MAU (outdoor art gallery abroad) and PAV, an ecological garden and art gallery built on an old factory cars.

"To go from navigation to the bustling, modern urban center to suddenly find yourself silent in front of this ancient image of our Lord … gives an indescribable sense of peace," says Father Francis Murphy, a Catholic priest from the United Kingdom. .

"Everyone wants to go"

Turin tourino duomo tail

The lines are huge when the cover appears

MARCO BERTORELLO / AFP via Getty Images

"If it's not already on the program, teams usually ask if they can see it," said Davide Cabodi, a tour guide in Turin who takes visitors to see the Sandwich most days.

Not that they can see the Mattress itself. Instead, visitors can pay their respects to the special chapel, the last one to the left of the Torino Cathedral, where the shroud is kept hidden.

Due to its fragility, it does not generally appear in public. Instead, it is flat (to avoid damaging the material folding) in a special glass case, which is housed in a box, wrapped in sheets of red material and separated from visitors by bulletproof glass.

The shroud is said to be an irregular "area" or representation, at the Pope's discretion. The last time this happened was in 2015, under Pope Francis. More than two million people lined up to see the Ship on the occasion.
To mark the worship of Easter during the 2020 locks imposed as a result of the corona, the images of the Scandal were digitally transmitted live to believers around the world.

On average a year when Sandwich doesn't show up, about 200,000 people visit the chapel each year, the cathedral says, although it's hard to be exact with the numbers.

Its popularity shows no sign of weakening, despite a long-standing radio appointment – and despite the Catholic Church's refusal to officially express itself in the shroud.

The "relics" are handmade objects that the Church believes to be true, but the Mattress is not characterized as a relic. Instead, Pope Francis called it "an image of a man being whipped and crucified."

However, true believers want to see it independently.

"It connects with people in a way that art doesn't"

Torino cheese hits the area

More than two million people have been diagnosed with osteoarthritis

MARCO BERTORELLO / AFP via Getty Images

For Pam Moon, from the United Kingdom, Shroud contributed to its conversion to Catholicism.

Married to an Anglican priest, she first saw Savannah as a member of the Church of England. When he saw it again, he was a Catholic. She strongly believes in her first visit to Turin by joining the faith.

"I think that changed me," he said. "For me, Savannah is the most extraordinary image of Christ's suffering. It's overwhelming when you see the number of shots in the back … but the face is serene. For me it's a look of resurrection."

The Moon is open to the fact that the Church does not see its authenticity. But he says that even though he thinks it's real, he wouldn't leave the shroud if he thought it was fake.

"It simply came to our notice then [Bible] he says in such a deep way that it would still be valuable to me. It is not necessary for anyone's faith. But I believe in its authenticity because today we can't even copy it, let alone create it. Personally, I believe that this is the burial cloth of Jesus Christ and the cloth from which he was resurrected from the dead. "

Moon watched "ostensioni" in 2010 and 2015, but will never forget her first date.

"I remember standing in front of him and thinking that this is really the blood of Jesus. You see it online as a photo, but up close it's a great experience.

"As a Christian, if I believe that this is his face, then this is the face of God. That was very, very deep."

Moon bought copies of Shroud's life size that she is carrying to the UK as a mobile phone report.

"People think it's just a face, or the black and white image, so watching a 15-foot reproduction is a very different experience," he says.

"It's profound to see the impact it has on other people, including people who don't have faith – I saw a guard once crying when I did it and he wasn't a Christian.

"It seems to connect with people in a way that art with a brush doesn't."

"Concept of transmission"

So what is it that attracts pilgrims in large numbers to the Mattress?

After all, between the Alps and the mountains behind Genoa, Turin is not on any of the major tourist routes and has never been one of Italy's largest destinations. In 2017, it was the 13th most visited city in Italy, under such lesser-known places as Sassari, Brescia and Livorno.

Christopher French, a professor of psychology at Goldsmiths University in London and an expert in paranormal beliefs, calls Shroud "a really interesting object" – and believes that his constant appeal is due in part to the past centuries. dated.

"Today the data is being collected by those who have long claimed it was fake, but up to that point it was a real mystery and for many it still keeps that air of mystery," he says.

"It's interesting to see – it looks like a photo in human form. And if you believe that this is the wrapped body of Christ, it is of great religious importance. "

French also points to the theory of "infection" – the idea that an object that has come in contact with a particular person may receive elements of its character. That's why we pay hundreds of dollars for an item that belongs to a pop star and why no one wants to live in the house of a murderer.

Being close to something that could have touched the Son of God is, for believers, a way to approach divinity.

The French also say that "the strongest cognitive bias is confirmation bias. We find it much easier to find evidence that supports what we want to be true. " So looking at the Savannah, which seems to fit the wound descriptions of Jesus' crucifixion, is human nature to want to believe.

There may be another item for transmission. David Cabondi believes that "sometimes tourists see the lines and queue." It's the same thinking as people waiting in line for hours to see the Mona Lisa. No one wants to lose. "

"The only reasonable explanation is that he was in Jerusalem."

Savannah Torino Pope Benedict

Pope Benedict in the 2010 ostensione

VINCENZO PINTO / AFP via Getty Images

Despite its bad texture, Emanuela Marinelli is one of the most well-known savannahs.

The science graduate – who went on to pursue another degree in geology as well as a botany course – was fascinated by the 1978 study by Max Frei-Sulzer, a Swiss medical examiner.

He wrote that of the 58 pollen samples in the fabric, three-quarters came from native plants in the Palestinian region. Only 17 came from plants also found in France and Italy – where Savannah was from the "discovery" of the 14th century. (Frei-Sulzer's research has been challenged by other experts, as are all Shroud-related studies.)

"The only reasonable explanation is that Savannah was in Jerusalem before it came to Europe," said Marinelli, who has seen it six times.

For her, “Savannah shows in a dramatic way the suffering that Jesus suffered during the last hours of his mortal life.

"But it does not leave us sad. The image of peaceful calm … speaks to us of the resurrection, of a body that has not been defeated by death."

He says the most notable thing about the skeleton up close is the amount of blood.

The various theories

Torino souvenir cheese

Pilgrims love Shroud souvenirs

Vincenzo Pinto / AFP via Getty Images

"No one is approaching the Ship from anywhere," said David Rolfe, a British filmmaker who has made four films about it and also saw his life change after his trip to Turin. "It's very, very difficult to approach it completely inactive."

Those who believe in its authenticity say that charcoal dating was wrong. that perhaps the samples were taken from a part of the fabric that had been reworked during the medieval period, or that a first-century earthquake in Jerusalem may have had the effect. (The carbon dating process destroys the sample, so testing is impossible.)

Opposing researchers are moving studies back and forth.

Professor Christopher Ramsey, who is now director of the Research Laboratory for Archeology and Art History in Oxford, said he would be happy to try it again, telling Chemistry World, "I don't think they're too healthy to wander. people in circles who want different things to come true … I would love to see [the date] whether he confirmed it or not. "She refused to comment to CNN.

The charm of a lifetime

pictures with turin souvenirs

Pilgrims buy reproductions of the Scandal

Vittorio Zunino Celotto / Getty Images

John Jackson is closer to Savannah than almost anyone else on Earth. In 1978, he led a team of 40 STURP (Shroud of Turin Research Project) scientists who were given five days to access the fabric.

A physicist with education, he is also a Catholic – and sees no discrepancy between the two. "Science raises the question: who, what, when, where, how. Religion asks, why? Since people don't start confusing these questions and the right evidence, you have no problem," he says.

Jackson admits the charm of his life with Savannah. As a child he swore to solve his mystery and while preparing for his doctorate in physics, he prayed, promising to dedicate his experience to art.

His discovery came a few years later.

In 1902, Pia noticed a correlation between the intensity of the image and the distance between the bodies – in other words, the image is darker in places where one would expect the material to touch the corpse – but then, this could not be measured.

By the 1970s, things had progressed. Jackson made a full-scale image of the cover, wrapped it around a volunteer, and drew the image's intensity into distance measurements between bodies.

"The points have started to settle around a curve," he says. "It simply came to our notice then.

"We're not just looking at a real-life image anymore – that was the important discovery," Jackson said. "Once you can put a problem in a math framework, you can see it with science."

In 1976, a colleague put the image of the cover under a VP8 scanner, which converts the image intensity into a three-dimensional relief. "I was surprised because the image of this body looked like a three-dimensional realistic body shape – usually the images don't," he said. "Normally it would look distorted." In other words, three-dimensional information is encoded in the housing – and when you place this information in a code reader, it displays a three-dimensional version of the cover – a form of a man.

The images of the VP8 were, says Jackson, "the catalyst that sparked scientific interest in the Ship." Within two years, a team of 30 scientists had gathered to study it – and, surprisingly, the authorities in Turin gave them access to it. He says they had "absolute academic freedom to do the science we wanted to do."

They spent five days collecting samples from the fabric and spent the next three years testing them. In 1981, they published their report.

They had not found dyes, dyes, dyes or stains on the fibers. The image had three-dimensional coding inside it. There was no evidence of oils, spices or biochemicals. It was "clear" that the material had direct contact with a body – but there was no explanation for the seemingly perfect image of the face.

Overall, they asked more questions than they could solve, with some things being explained by physics that is excluded from chemistry and vice versa.

"The answer to the question of how the image was produced or what produced the image now remains, as it has in the past, a mystery," they concluded.

«Μπορούμε να καταλήξουμε στο συμπέρασμα ότι η εικόνα του Σκανδάλου είναι μια πραγματική ανθρώπινη μορφή ενός πληγωμένου, σταυρωμένου ανθρώπου. Δεν είναι προϊόν ενός καλλιτέχνη… Η εικόνα είναι ένα συνεχές μυστήριο.»

Ο Τζάκσον εξακολουθεί να είναι γοητευμένος από το Σάβανο – εργάζεται συνεχώς σε αυτό – αν και λέει ότι δεν στηρίζει την πίστη του σε αυτό.

"Όταν έρθει η ώρα μου, το Σάβανο θα είναι απολύτως άσχετο για μένα."

Μετατρέπει στην αιτία

καρτ ποστάλ τουρίνου

Το πρόσωπο που κυκλοφόρησε χίλιες καρτ-ποστάλ

MARCO BERTORELLO / AFP μέσω Getty Images

Από την ανακοίνωση του 1988, το Σάβανο – ή το Sindone, όπως λέγεται στην Ιταλία – συνέχισε να προσελκύει ανθρώπους στο Τορίνο. Για μερικούς, η επίσκεψη αλλάζει τη ζωή τους. Πάρτε για παράδειγμα τον David Rolfe – έναν σκεπτικιστή όταν το 1978 έκανε το πρώτο του ντοκιμαντέρ, "The Silent Witness".

"Το συναίσθημα τότε ήταν ότι ήταν μια μεσαιωνική πλαστογραφία", λέει στο CNN. "Τα λείψανα ήταν τεράστια δουλειά, και το πέπλο ήταν ο άσος των λειψάνων. Όποτε βγήκαν, εκατοντάδες άνθρωποι ήρθαν να το δουν."

Ο Rolfe πίστευε ότι ήταν «θεαματική πλαστογραφία» και, με το ντοκιμαντέρ του, ξεκίνησε να αποδείξει πώς είχε δημιουργηθεί.

Αλλά κάνοντας την ταινία, άρχισε να ξανασκεφτεί. Είδε τις εικόνες 3D VP8. Έμαθε ότι δεν υπήρχε «κατεύθυνση» στην εικόνα, όπως θα είχε εφαρμοστεί με πινέλο. Συνέντευξη σε έναν εγκληματολόγο παθολόγο ο οποίος είπε ότι ήταν «ιδιαίτερα ακριβής κατασκευή μιας ρωμαϊκής σταύρωσης» – ιδίως οι πληγές στους καρπούς, παρά στις παλάμες, με «χαμένους» αντίχειρες που πιστεύεται ότι προκαλούνται από νευρική βλάβη ή απόσυρση του αντίχειρα .

Ήταν απίθανο, σκέφτηκε, ότι ένας μεσαιωνικός πλαστογράφος θα είχε τέτοια εντολή ανθρώπινης ανατομίας. (Ο καθηγητής Michael Tite, ο οποίος επιτήρησε τη χρονολόγηση άνθρακα, το έχει επίσης σχολιάσει – αλλά υποστηρίζει ότι ενώ το Σάβανο είναι πράγματι το νεκροταφείο ενός θύματος σταύρωσης, είναι ένα μεσαιωνικό, από έναν Χριστιανό που βασανίστηκε. Ο Tite αρνήθηκε να μιλήσω στο CNN.)

Η ταινία έπαιξε σε εξαντλημένα είδη κοινού σε όλο τον κόσμο και κέρδισε ένα BAFTA. Ο Rolfe είχε κάνει το όνομά του επαγγελματικά, αλλά, λέει, "Ήμουν πολύ απασχολημένος με τη δημιουργία της ταινίας για να σκεφτώ τη μεταμόρφωση που είχε κάνει στη ζωή μου."

"Βρήκα [the Shroud] έργο μεγαλοπρεπούς ιδιοφυΐας. Δεν είδα κανένα στοιχείο για τον άνθρωπο, και σκέφτηκα, ναι, πιστεύω ότι αυτό προκλήθηκε από ένα θαύμα και το μόνο πράγμα που θα μπορούσε να ήταν η ανάσταση. "Λίγο αργότερα, πήρε μια τελετή επιβεβαίωσης σε μια εκκλησία.

Συνέχισε να κάνει άλλες τρεις ταινίες σχετικά με το σκάνδαλο και έχει κάνει πολλές επισκέψεις στο Τορίνο.

Διαφθορά από σωματικά υγρά;

selfie μανδύα τουρίνου

Ένας άντρας τραβά μια φωτογραφία του Σκουφιού του Τορίνου καθώς εκτίθεται δημόσια το 2015 κατόπιν αιτήματος του Πάπα

MARCO BERTORELLO / AFP μέσω Getty Images

Οι συνεχείς μελέτες για το Σάντουιτς, τις οποίες οι δύο υποστηρίζουν μπρος-πίσω, συνεχίζουν τη συζήτηση – και οι επισκέπτες συρρέουν στο Τορίνο.

"Οι άνθρωποι θα το πιστεύουν ακόμα εάν αποδειχθεί οριστικά ψεύτικο", λέει ο Christopher French, ψυχολόγος. "Συμβαίνει με τόσα πολλά από αυτά τα είδη αξιώσεων – οι σκεπτικιστές πιστεύουν ότι το έχουν σκοτώσει επιτέλους, αλλά οι ισχυρισμοί είναι σαν ζόμπι. Δεν νομίζω ότι θα είχε σημασία τι αποδεικτικά στοιχεία προτείνατε, θα υπήρχαν ιδιοφυΐα τρόπος να το εξηγήσεις. "

Πράγματι, οι πιστοί του Σκανδάλου έχουν τις θεωρίες τους. Το καλύτερο στοίχημα του David Rolfe είναι ότι με την πάροδο των ετών αρπάχθηκε, φιλήθηκε και ιδρώθηκε από τους πιστούς, σχηματίζοντας μια βακτηριακή λάμψη που χρονολογούσε λανθασμένα το Σάβανο.

Ο Τζάκσον Τζάκσον λέει: "Αφαιρέστε την ημερομηνία του ραδιοανθρακονήματος και φαίνεται ότι θα μπορούσε να είναι ο πρώτος αιώνας. Άρα υπάρχει κάτι μοναδικό που μας δίνει αυτό το σύντομο 14ο αιώνα; Οι «υποθέσεις» του περιλαμβάνουν μόλυνση με μονοξείδιο του άνθρακα – μόλις το 2% της μόλυνσης θα μπορούσε να κάνει την ημερομηνία άνθρακα του πρώτου αιώνα ως ημερομηνία του 14ου αιώνα, λέει.

Η Shroudie Emanuela Marinelli πιστεύει ότι η χρονολόγηση άνθρακα αποσπά την προσοχή των ανθρώπων που διαφορετικά θα πίστευαν στην αυθεντικότητα του Shroud. Οι Χριστιανοί που δεν το πιστεύουν, λέει, ενεργούν «από άγνοια ή επειδή έχουν λάβει μέρος – όχι για έγκυρους λόγους».

Ψεύτικο αίμα

σουβενίρ τυρί του Τορίνο

Το Shroud είναι μεγάλη επιχείρηση για πωλητές αναμνηστικών

Vittorio Zunino Celotto / Getty Images

Ο Matteo Borrini θα το υποστήριζε με αυτό. Ιατροδικαστής ανθρωπολόγος στο Πανεπιστήμιο του Λίβερπουλ John Moores στο Ηνωμένο Βασίλειο, είναι επίσης καθολικός.

Το 2018, μαζί με τον Ιταλό σκεπτικιστή Luigi Garlaschelli, έκανε μια ανάλυση μοτίβου Bloodstain (BPA) στο Shroud. Τα αποτελέσματά τους έδειξαν ότι οι ροές αίματος που φαίνονται στο υλικό προέρχονταν από διαφορετικές οπτικές γωνίες – με άλλα λόγια, δεν παρήχθη από ένα μόνο σώμα, ούτε από το σταυρό ούτε σχεδιάστηκε.

«Κοιτάζοντας τις κηλίδες αίματος στο Στρώμα δεν βλέπω καμία ακολουθία», λέει ο Borrini στο CNN.

"[My Christian] η πίστη δεν βασίζεται σε λείψανα – [it is] βασίζεται στο Ευαγγέλιο όπου πιστεύεις χωρίς να βλέπεις, "λέει." Και μην ξεχνάτε ότι η Εκκλησία δεν αναγνωρίζει το Σάβανο ως λείψανο. "

Ωστόσο – ονομάστε το δέλεαρ του Σκανδάλου – παρά την δυσπιστία του, ο Μπορίνι ταξίδεψε στο Τορίνο για να το δει τουλάχιστον τρεις φορές.

"Παρόλο που ξέρω ότι είναι ένα τεχνούργημα, είναι πολύ ισχυρό. Υπάρχουν πολλές άλλες καλλιτεχνικές παραστάσεις – σκεφτείτε το Pietà του Michelangelo [in the Vatican]. Το Σικάβα δεν είναι όμορφο, αλλά είναι το νόημα. Το πλησίασα, το είδα ως αρχαιολογικό κομμάτι, αλλά ταυτόχρονα σκεφτόμουν τι σημαίνει για μένα το πάθος και η ανάσταση του Χριστού. "

Ο Μπορίνι πιστεύει ότι το προσκύνημα στο Τορίνο έχει διαφορετική πτυχή από, για παράδειγμα, τα ιερά στο Λούρδη της Γαλλίας ή τη Φατιμά στην Πορτογαλία, όπου λέγεται ότι εμφανίστηκε η Παναγία και τα οποία η Καθολική Εκκλησία έχει αναγνωρίσει ως «θαυματουργά» μέρη.

"Με το Σκουφάκι του Τορίνου βλέπετε κάτι – αν και δεν αναγνωρίζεται από την Εκκλησία – ενώ στη Λούρδη δεν βλέπετε τίποτα φυσικό.

"Το Σάβανο είναι μια πολύ ισχυρή, συγκλονιστική εικόνα και αντιπροσωπεύει μια πολύ κρίσιμη πτυχή της χριστιανικής πίστης – το θάνατο και την ανάσταση του Ιησού Χριστού.

"Νομίζω ότι οι άνθρωποι πηγαίνουν [to Turin and Lourdes] με την ίδια πίστη, αλλά ίσως ωθούνται από διαφορετικά πράγματα. "

"Δεν είναι απολύτως ζήτημα να πούμε [believers] είναι αφελείς, "λέει ο Κρίστοφερ Γάλλος." Αν πιστεύεις ότι αυτό είναι το τυλιγμένο σώμα του Χριστού, έχει τεράστια θρησκευτική σημασία. "

Μια «κρύα μέρα στην κόλαση»

σουβενίρ τυρί τουρίνου

Το Spin-off του Shroud είναι δημοφιλές στους Καθολικούς

RAUL ARBOLEDA / AFP μέσω Getty Images

Θα λυθεί λοιπόν το μυστήριο του Σκανδάλου; Για τον Borrini, έχει ήδη – είναι τελικά ψεύτικο. Αλλά οι πιστοί και εκείνοι που βρίσκονται στο φράχτη λένε ότι μέχρι να υπάρξει απόδειξη για το πώς φτιάχτηκε, είναι ακόμη έτοιμο για συζήτηση.

Σε κάθε περίπτωση, οι πιστοί θα συνεχίσουν να συρρέουν στο Τορίνο. «Μερικές φορές ενοχλούμαι λίγο με αυτό το είδος λατρείας λειψάνων», λέει ο ντόπιος Ντέιβιντ Καμπόντι του Τορίνο, ο οποίος καταλήγει μπροστά από το φέρετρο του Καβαλιού αρκετές φορές την εβδομάδα.

"Για μένα, το πιο όμορφο πράγμα είναι το εκκλησάκι – άνοιξε ξανά το 2018 μετά από σχεδόν 20 χρόνια μετά από μια φωτιά."

Παραδέχεται, ωστόσο, ότι το Σάντουιτς συσκευάζει μια γροθιά. «Την πρώτη φορά που το είδα, ειλικρινά ίσως ένιωσα κάτι. Ήταν συναισθηματικό. Μελετάς τη θρησκεία και την ιστορία της τέχνης και μετά το κοιτάς και σκέφτεσαι, με κανέναν τρόπο, πώς το έκαναν; Αλλά το πρόσωπο είναι εκεί. οι πληγές είναι εκεί. Το αίμα είναι εκεί – όπως στο Ευαγγέλιο.

«Είμαι μη πιστός, αλλά μπροστά σε κάτι που« ταιριάζει »έτσι, εμφανίζεται μια αμφιβολία.

"Οι άνθρωποι θα το επισκέπτονται πάντα. Αν είσαι πιστός, το πιστεύεις. Ακόμα κι αν είσαι άθεος, βγαίνεις από περιέργεια, για να πεις ότι το έχεις δει."